** The Coin Change Problem is considered by many to be essential to understanding the paradigm of programming known as Dynamic Programming**. The two often are always paired together because the coin change problem encompass the concepts of dynamic programming. For those who don't know about dynamic programming it is according to Wikipedia Coin change problem is a famous dynamic programming problem. I have explained the whole algorithm and the code

# Dynamic Programming Python implementation of Coin Change problem def count(S, m, n): # We need n+1 rows as the table is consturcted in bottom up # manner using the base case 0 value case (n = 0) table = [[0 for x in range(m)] for x in range(n+1)] # Fill the enteries for 0 value case (n = 0) for i in range(m): table[0][i] = 1 # Fill rest of the table enteries in bottom up manner for i in range(1, n+1): for j in range(m): # Count of solutions including S[j] x = table[i - S[j]][j. Dynamic Programming - Coin Change Problem June 27, 2015 by Sumit Jain Objective: Given a set of coins and amount, Write an algorithm to find out how many ways we can make the change of the amount using the coins given. This is another problem in which i will show you the advantage of Dynamic programming over recursion You might also think about using some properties of logarithms, to turn this from a problem about multiplication into a problem about addition. And finally, dynamic programming on graph structures usually involves building a solution of length n+1 out of a solution of length n, so you should probably start by thinking about the smallest possible problem, and how it relates to the second smallest problem, etc There is another variation of this problem where the solution is the minimum number of coins to satisfy the amount. These problems appear very similar, but the solutions are very different . Number of possible ways to make change: the optimal substructure for this is DP(m,n) = DP(m-1, n) + DP(m, n-Sm) where DP is the number of solutions for all coins up to the mth coin and amount=n ** Solve overlapping subproblems using Dynamic Programming (DP): You can solve this problem recursively but will not pass all the test cases without optimizing to eliminate the overlapping subproblems**. Think of a way to store and reference previously computed solutions to avoid solving the same subproblem multiple times

- imum number of coins (of certain deno
- g 11 Dynamic program
- Any problem in P is also in NP. A decision problem that's in P is also in NP, because you can give the verification logic like this: for yes instance x, use empty string as a certificate, and solve x in polynomial time. You get the result that it's yes instance (that's by definition of P) and that means verification is done in polynomial time
- g will help in understanding the solution much more easily. Read through the following articles to get an algorithmic view of the problem
- e whether or not there exists a sequence of currencies. #0/ #213

- g Practice Problems. This site contains an old collection of practice dynamic program
- g — Rod Cutting Problem: Medium: 2: Dynamic Program
- g is nothing but basically recursion plus some common sense. What it means is that recursion helps us divide a large problem into smaller problems. And common sense says whatever.
- 1) Optimal Substructure. To count the total number of solutions, we can divide all set solutions into two sets. 1) Solutions that do not contain mth coin (or Sm). 2) Solutions that contain at least one Sm. Let count (S [], m, n) be the function to count the number of solutions, then it can be written as sum of count (S [], m-1, n) and count (S [],.

- g. In the coin change problem, we are basically provided with coins with different deno
- g) encountered in nan-cial models. For each problem class, after introducing the relevant theory (optimality conditions, duality, etc.) and e cient solution methods, we dis-cuss several problems of mathematical nance that can be modeled within this problem class
- ation at each stage for the provided input. Optimal Dynamic Program
- g Method. To avoid the re-computations of the same problems as discussed above an array will be constructed in a bottom-up manner. Algorithm. Initialize a variable n and an array c of available coins. If n is zero stores 1 in array count as the only solution is to use 0 coins
- Problem 5 (20 Points). Shortest path algorithms can be applied in currency trading. Suppose we have n diﬀerent currencies 1,...,n. For any two currencies, there is an exchange rate r i,j; this means that you can purchase r i,j units of currency j in exchange for one unit of currency i. These exchange rates satisfy the condition that r i,j ·

I found a really interesting problem and I wanted to hear people's opinion. It has to do with currency exchange rate. If we are give some coins c 1, c 2, , c n and an array R that keeps the selling price, where R [ i, j] is the selling price of one unit of currency c i to currency c j. a) We are trying to design an algorithm that will find a. In this example, we can improve it. We go from S to B, then from B to A, and the path will be, already, minus ten, which is much less than five. So Dijkstra's algorithm doesn't work in such cases. Such an example is also possible in the currency exchange problem. Here is a graph with realistic conversion rates between ruble, euros and U.S. dollars Free 5-Day Mini-Course: https://backtobackswe.comTry Our Full Platform: https://backtobackswe.com/pricing Intuitive Video Explanations Run Code As Yo..

* (In general the change-making problem requires dynamic programming to find an optimal solution; however, most currency systems, including the Euro and US Dollar, are special cases where the greedy strategy does find an optimal solution*. We can model the currencies and the exchange rates as a graph, where the nodes are the currencies and the edges are the exchange rates between each currency. Since our table is complete, the graph is also complete. Then, to solve this problem, we need to find a cycle whose edge weights product is greater than 1

Here is the pseudocode by dynamic programming that is about as simple as possible. Let $s$ be an array of size $M+1$ with default value 0 and starting index 0. Let $s[0]=1$. For $i$ from 1 to $n$, do: For $j$ from 0 to $M$, do: If $s[j]=1$, let $s[j+v_i]= 1$. If $s[M]=1$, return yes. Otherwise, return no. Here is an example to illustrate the algorithm Stack Exchange network consists of 177 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, This gives us the following dynamic programming algorithm (here in Python, Dynamic programming problem finding the subproblem. 1 * cal concepts to a real-world problem*. More specifically, Linear Programming methods will be used to detect opportunities for arbitrage between five major currencies in the foreign exchange market. In the first section, an overview of basic terminology regard ing currency exchange is provided. In the second section, the concept of arbitrage i Looking for a List of the Best, Safest and Low Fee Online Brokers? Find out who made it to the top of this year's list and open a trading account with them TC 15.3-6(Exchange Currency) I n different currencies I Given an exchange rate rij for each pair of currencies i and j I Let ck be the commission that you are charged when you make k trades. I Try to find thebest sequence of exchanges from currency 1 to currency n trades. Jun Ma (majun@nju.edu.cn) 3-1 Dynamic Programming September 19, 2020 8/2

Making Change: Memoization and Dynamic Programming In U.S. currency the problem of making change is easily solved using a \greedy strategy which yields the smallest possible number of coins. For example, suppose we must make up 67 cents in change using quarters (25 cents), dimes (10 cents), nickels (5 cents) and pennies (1 cent) Familiarity with Dynamic Programming will help in understanding the solution much more easily. Read through the following articles to get an algorithmic view of the problem: Coin Changing Revisited; Coin Change; The CoinChangeAnswer Class. An instance of the CoinChangeAnswer stores the result of both the FindAll and FindOptimal problems currency risk. To control the currency risk, the investor may enter into currency exchange contracts in the forward market, or buy currency options — either single protective puts, or combinations of options that form a particular trading strategy. In this section we develop scenario-based stochastic programming models for managing invest Dynamic Programming. The Coin Change Problem. Submissions. The Coin Change Problem. Problem. Submissions. Leaderboard. Discussions. Editorial. You have not made any submissions for The Coin Change Problem yet. Solve The Coin Change Problem. Need Help? View discussions. View editorial

Dynamic programming. Moore (1959). Routing long-distance telephone calls for Bell Labs. Dijkstra (1959). Shortest-paths is a broadly useful problem-solving model • Exploiting arbitrage opportunities in currency exchange 2.1. A switching problem in connection with mean-reverting exchange rates Assume that the exchange rate between domestic currency and foreign currency is given by U(t)=eX(t), so that the cost of buying one unit of foreign currency at time t is U(t). Here, X is a mean-reverting Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process satisfying dX(t)=−βX(t)dt+σdW(t 3 Dynamic Programming History Bellman. Pioneered the systematic study of dynamic programming in the 1950s. Etymology. Dynamic programming = planning over time. Secretary of Defense was hostile to mathematical research. Bellman sought an impressive name to avoid confrontation. - it's impossible to use dynamic in a pejorative sense - something not even a Congressman could object t Optimization Methods in Finance Gerard Cornuejols Reha Tut unc u Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA January 200

Tick value is 5, profit currency is USD, account currency is EUR. By that, its easy to figure out that one tick costs 5 USD, which have to translate to my account´s currency. No problem so far - this is my general proceeding. DAX future: Clearly 25 EUR per tick - recalculation to account currency is 1:1 in this case Problem 4: Optimal Substructure [3 points] Imagine that you wish to exchange one currency for another. You realize that instead of directly exchanging one currency for another, you might be better off making a series of trades through other currencies, winding up with the currency you want. Suppose that you can trade n different currencies, numbered 1, 2 n where you start with currency 1. Dynamic programming algorithms. Homework HW7due Thursday, November 14, 11pm Best Currency Exchange 9 Consider a directed graph where nodes correspond to currencies and edges Standard shortest path problem! Problem with Negative Edges 12 10 2 6 11 9 5 8-5 7 3 1 8 12 9 3 4 3 5 3

This is a classic dynamic programming problem. The first step in the dynamic programming approach is to find a recurrence. Let's define to be the number of coins that it takes to make cents. We can define this recursively with a case for each coin. Say the denominations are 1, 4, and 5 stochastic dynamic programming + notes (pdf) cake eating problem + notes (pdf, yellow marking indicates mistakes) SIR-model+ notes (pdf) Optimal stopping + notes (pdf) Finite dynamic programming Shortest path problem Acyclic model + notes (pdf) Cyclic model + notes (pdf) Programming + notes (pdf) + Julia code (zip) Currency Exchange + notes (pdf) + Juli * Now these two methods, can work together to build a dynamic formatting*. Parameter table for currency. Here I have created a parameter table for the currency values. This table can be created anywhere; In Excel, or another data source, or even in Power BI Desktop. Dynamic Format Measur The problem has an optimal substructure as the problem can be broken down into smaller subproblems, We know that problems with optimal substructure and overlapping subproblems can be solved using dynamic programming where the subproblem solutions are memoized rather than computed and again prediction.2 This problem has the attractive feature that, because the investments do not influence the exchange rate, we do not need to invest real money during the training phase of QL until we are convinced that our strategy works. 3 Dynamic Programming: Off-line and Adaptiv

The problem formulated in this way gives rise to many overlapping subproblems--a hallmark of dynamic programming, and indeed, dynamic programming can be used to solve the 0-1 problem. (See Exercise 17.2-2.) Figure 17.2 The greedy strategy does not work for the 0-1 knapsack problem This is the second post in the localization guide series. In this post will cover the second aspect of localization, which is supporting multiple currencies across the different locales. You ** Stack Exchange network consists of 177 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, Browse other questions tagged java change-making-problem or ask your own question**. Coin change with Dynamic Programming. 2. Coin Change Problem with Memoization. 5

In this paper, we consider the optimal cross-hedging and risk control problem of a competitive firm facing exchange risk exposure in a multi-period setting. We present the optimal positions of currency futures and options to maximize the exponential utility of the terminal wealth by dynamic programming approach This book is a companion volume to Dynamic Macroeconomic Theory by Thomas J. Sargent. It provides scrimmages in dynamic macroeconomic theory--precisely the kind of drills that people will need in order to learn the techniques of dynamic programming and its applications to economics. By doing these exercises, the reader can acquire the ability. For the currency system, where we have coins of ₹1, ₹6, ₹10 and ₹20 value, counting coins for value 36 will be absolutely optimum but for count like 32, it may use more coins than necessary. For example, the greedy approach will use 20 + 10 + 1 + 1, total 4 coins. Whereas the same problem could be solved by using only 3 coins (20 + 6 + 6

Hedging currency risk is a useful tool for any savvy investor that does business internationally and wants to mitigate the risk associated with the Forex currency exchange rate fluctuations. In this currency hedging guide we're going to outline a few standard and out of the box currency risk hedging strategies.. If this is your first time on our website, our team at Trading Strategy Guides. 4.4 Shortest Paths. Shortest paths. An edge-weighted digraph is a digraph where we associate weights or costs with each edge. A shortest path from vertex s to vertex t is a directed path from s to t with the property that no other such path has a lower weight.. Properties. We summarize several important properties and assumptions

- Currency stability challenging, even with exchange rate peg If not 100% backed, peg vulnerable to self-fulﬁlling attacks Exchange rate pegs admit multiple equilibria as in Obstfeld (1996) We develop new theory of pegs with less than 100% backing Show optimal exchange rate policy necessarily dynamic Exchange rate adjusts (optimally) to trade.
- i project coded in Java program
- Our Python coding interview questions and tests are a surefire way to help you screen the candidates for the open Python developer positions. They allow you to assess Python skills efficiently and without the influence of any unconscious bias whatsoever. Once the candidate is finished with the test, you receive an easy-to-read candidate report.
- Forecasting of Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Using Neural Network Dr. S. Kumar Chandar #1, Dr. M. Sumathi*2, Dr S. N. Sivanandam #3 #1 Associate Professor, Christ University / PhD Scholar, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India #3Professor Emeritus, Karpagam College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India *2Associate Professor, Sri Meenakshi Government College for Arts for Women (Autonomous)
- problem. 2 Background and related work 2.1 Classical FX trading In foreign exchange markets, currency pairs are traded in such way that a quoted price is used. The average of FX daily trading volume is more than $5.1 trillion. [5] Factors like interest rates, trade ﬂows, tourism
- This rigorous but brilliantly lucid book presents a self-contained treatment of modern economic dynamics. Stokey, Lucas, and Prescott develop the basic methods of recursive analysis and illustrate the many areas where they can usefully be applied
- Virtual : Exchange Rate Policy (ERP) English, November 8-19, 2021, Singapore, Singapore Apply online by June 11, 202

Stack Exchange network consists of 177 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Visit Stack Exchange In this paper, we develop a multi-stage stochastic programming model for dynamic international portfolio risk management with options in an integrated view. Upon scenario trees, the model can automatically compute the optimal hedging strategies, which provides rolling and dynamic decisions for how much option positions should be established and how much should be liquidated, while.

- d immediately went to the familiar automated teller machine (ATM) UI / UX were one enters numbers.
- Simplex, a licensed financial institution, empowers its vast network of partners to accept the widest range of payment methods, including Visa, MasterCard, Apple Pay, SWIFT, SEPA, and more! Zero risk, zero rolling reserve, zero security incidents. Highest conversion rates, multiple acquiring solutions
- CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper studies optimal monetary policy rules by the central bank confronted by foreign investors ' state-dependent reactions and self-ful lling expectations. We extend Taylor type monetary policy rules by allowing the central bank to give some weight to the level of precautionary foreign reserve balances as one of.

Kogut and Kulatilaka (1994) developed a stochastic, dynamic programming model to study the value of production switching in conditions where currency exchange rates are uncertain. In this way, the authors investigated the flexibility of a manufacturing system that allows production to be transferred as currency exchange rates fluctuate 3.18.1 Currency Exchange Problem Analysis 177. 3.18.2 CurrencyCalc Software Design 179. 3.18.3 TCurrency Class Representing Currency Records 181. 3.18.3.1 C++ Input/Output Manipulators 183. 3.18.4 TCurrencyExchanger Class for Exchanging Currency 186. 3.18.5 Putting It All Together - The Complete Currency Exchange Program 190. 3.19 Operators 19

Discusses a problem that occurs where the Date, Phone Number, and Currency fields are not merged correctly when you use OLEDB with a Microsoft Access or with a Microsoft Excel data source to perform a mail merge Open the Bank Reconciliation Setup window. (Microsoft Dynamics GP menu >> Tools >> Setup >> Financial >> Bank Reconciliation) Enter the next number for bank transactions, receipts, transfers, and reconcile adjustments. Enter the transaction type descriptions and codes. See Default entries overview for more information

Quora is a place to gain and share knowledge. It's a platform to ask questions and connect with people who contribute unique insights and quality answers. This empowers people to learn from each other and to better understand the world ** CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper studies optimal monetary policy rules by the central bank confronted by foreign investors ' state-dependent reactions and self-fulfilling expectations**. We extend Taylor type monetary policy rules by allowing the central bank to give some weight to the level of precautionary foreign reserve balances as one.

Negative Weight Edges. It is a weighted graph in which the total weight of an edge is negative. If a graph has a negative edge, then it produces a chain. After executing the chain if the output is negative then it will give - ∞ weight and condition get discarded. If weight is less than negative and - ∞ then we can't have the shortest path. DevSkiller Python Online tests are fully customizable, meaning you can set the difficulty level, time-scale, and programming language being tested. Our Python tests can be adapted very easily to suit your company's needs or you can simply choose DevSkiller's own default settings and get started

Collect as many variety of banknotes as you can afford, now. How To Lose Weight by Collecting World Bank Notes. Rule # 1: Replace sodium, trans fats, saturated fats and partially hydrogenated oils in your food with vegetables, minerals and supplements. Replace sweet and sweat drinks with spring water. Enjoy water Compare the best Cryptocurrency Exchanges in the Middle East of 2021 for your business. Find the highest rated Cryptocurrency Exchanges in the Middle East pricing, reviews, free demos, trials, and more Dynamically Hedging Oil and Currency Futures Using Receding Horizontal Control and Stochastic Programming Paul Edward The real-world problem is how to offset falling asset prices in a dynamic way, whereby the variability of portfolio returns is stable investing in oil or the foreign exchange futures markets. The major sections of thi

The management of foreign exchange risk of supply chains has drawn considerable atten-tion from researchers. Huchzermeier and Cohen [3] developed dynamic programming models to study the value of operational ﬂexibility of global supply chains under exchange rate risk A Dynamic Programming Approach to Price Installment Options ∗ Hatem Ben-Ameur † Michèle Breton † Pascal François‡ April 2004 ∗Corresponding author: Michèle Breton, Centre for Research on e-ﬁnance, 3000 Côte- Ste-Catherine, Montreal H3T 2A7, Canada. Mail to: michele.breton@hec.ca Updating currency exchange rates in Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2011. by Dmitry Kirsanov 22. November 2011 00:36. As promised earlier, I've created a small utility which updates currency exchange rates for currencies used by Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2011 server. It's fast, reliable and can be run in unattended mode, so you can set it once and. rebill currency: aed all amd ars aud awg azn bam bbd bdt bgn bhd bob brl byr cad chf clp cny cop crc csd czk dkk dop dzd ecs egp eur fjd gbp ghs hkd hrk huf idr ils inr isk jod jpy kes krw kwd kzt lbp lkr ltl lvl mad mkd mnt mop mur mxn myr ngn nio nok nzd omr pen php pkr pln pyg qar ron rsd rub sar sek sgd thb try ttd twd uah usd uyu uzs vef vnd xaf xcd xof yum za This chapter introduces basic ideas and methods of dynamic programming.¹ It sets out the basic elements of a recursive optimization problem, describes a key functional equation called the Bellman equation, presents three methods for solving the Bellman equation, and gives the Benveniste-Scheinkman formula for the derivative of the optimal value function

Currency Exchange Program 126 ; Sorting 2D Dynamic array of integers , Snake Style 6 ; Is there any way to catch segmentation fault? 5 ; problem with try function 3 ; Polymorphism - Simple Use 1 ; exception handling and throw clause 10 ; Exception handling 15 ; Ascii Drawing in Java 1 ; exception handling 2 ; Exception Handling 3 ; Looking for. Operations research (OR) is an analytical method of problem-solving and decision-making that is useful in the management of organizations. In operations research, problems are broken down into basic components and then solved in defined steps by mathematical analysis. GitHub Repository. GitHub Pages

The currency should trade at around 285-290 per dollar, according to Alan Cameron, an economist at Exotix Partners LLP in London. A devaluation won't solve Nigeria's structural economic. If your idea has not been submitted click Post New Idea to submit a product idea to the LabVIEW Idea Exchange. Be sure to submit a separate post for each idea. Watch as the community gives your idea kudos and adds their input. As NI R&D considers the idea, they will change the idea status. Give kudos to other ideas that you would like to see in. Language choice will now be discussed in the context of performance. C++, Java, Python, R and MatLab all contain high-performance libraries (either as part of their standard or externally) for basic data structure and algorithmic work. C++ ships with the Standard Template Library, while Python contains NumPy/SciPy SAP ABAP/4 Programming, Basis Administration, Configuration Hints and Tips. Objective The purpose of this SAP site is to help SAP Consultant in the understanding of SAP R/3 Ver 3.0x./4.6x/ECC 5/6.. The focus of this site will be on the SAP functional configuration of Material Management, Sales and Distribution, Production Planning and Control, Controlling, Financial Accounting, Basis. Dynamic stochastic programming Currency Exchange Rates Other Areas . Zero Yield Curve. • Generation of the scenario tree is a crucial step in the problem solving process.

- Cryptocurrency exchanges are for all intents and purposes, the backbone of the cryptocurrency market. Evert tradable asset needs a market where it can be traded and that is what these exchanges d
- g makes decisions based on all the decisions made in the previous stage, and may reconsider the previous stage's algorithmic path to solution. Note:The traveling salesman problem doesn't have this property, and therefore the greedy algorithm solution isn't right for it
- g competitions and contests, program
- Chance constrained optimization is especially important in engineering and finance where uncertainties in price, demand, supply, currency exchange rate, recycle and feed rate, and demographic condition are common. Some classical applications of the chance-constrained method include water reservoir management and financial risk management
- e the effectiveness of different currency hedging instruments
- g, you can easily issue your own points, of new Eco-Chains. You can convert your cryptocurrency into each country's currency through the Aaron Exchange, our new Currency Exchange

- R V T∈U log 1 C(,) Now a shortest path problem! 0.06 USD Euro AED MYR-.63-.02 0.57-0.585 Negative Edge Weights
- With the dynamic creation of a new blockchain for the new digital currency, MetaMUI supports the currency multiplication of the modern banking system. Commercial banks can dynamically publish their own version of digital currency based on M0, M1, or M2 ﬁat currency. MetaMUI treats chain code as a target data of the consensus
- The IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. Manuals, guides, and other material on statistical practices at the IMF, in member countries, and of the statistical community at large are also available
- Dijkstra's, Bellman-Ford, Johnson's, Floyd-Warshall are good algorithms for solving the shortest paths problem. They all share the principle of relaxation, whereby costs are initially overestimated for all vertices and gradually corrected for using a consistent heuristic on edges (the term relaxation in the context of graph traversal is not be confused with relaxation as used in an.

- al: Trading services, including Market , Signals and Virtual Hosting are now conveniently.
- g model to explore optimal options strategies for international portfolios with overall risk management on Greek letters, extending existing Greek-based analysis to dynamic and nondeter
- g tool for wiring together hardware devices, APIs and online services in new and interesting ways. It provides a browser-based editor that makes it easy to wire together flows using the wide range of nodes in the palette that can be deployed to its runtime in a single-click
- g has the advantage that simple back-of-the-envelope calculations based on asymptotic time and memory demands quickly reveal whether dynamic program
- Transaction costs. Definition - A transaction cost is any cost involved in making an economic transaction. For example, when buying a good or buying foreign exchange, there will be some transaction costs (in addition to the price of the good.) The transaction cost could be financial, extra time or inconvenience. Transaction costs could involve
- The exchange rates can be represented as a weighted graph with each node representing a currency and each directed edge representing the exchange rate. To find an arbitrage opportunity we need to find a path through the graph (starting and ending at the same node) where the product of edge weights is greater than 1.0
- Princeton University Press brings scholarly ideas to the world. About Us. We publish peer-reviewed books that connect authors and readers across spheres of knowledge to advance and enrich the global conversation. We embrace the highest standards of scholarship, inclusivity, and diversity in our publishing. In keeping with Princeton University.

inflation, interest rates, and exchange rates, and with the effects of government policies—such as fiscal policy, monetary policy, and exchange rate policy - that the pressing problem of what to do about a severe slump, and made the question. 7. 20. macroeconomics. This is a 5-part article series. In part 1 of this series, let's introduce the concept of microservices and understand how to create great microservices with Spring Boot and Spring Cloud. In this article. The Task Parallel Library (TPL) is based on the concept of a task, which represents an asynchronous operation.In some ways, a task resembles a thread or ThreadPool work item, but at a higher level of abstraction. The term task parallelism refers to one or more independent tasks running concurrently. Tasks provide two primary benefits 598 F. Zafari et al. and Bidemi 2011). Although there are several statistical models that are cur-rently used for forecasting the foreign currency exchange rates, they lac